What is a steroid?
A steroid is a terpenoid lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. All steroids are made in cells either from the sterol lanosterol or the sterol cycloartenol. Both sterols are derived from the cyclization of the triterpene squalene.

What are Anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids are a class of steroid hormones related to the hormone testosterone. They increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup of cellular tissue (anabolism), especially in muscles. Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics.

Why is the use of anabolic steroids banned by all major sporting bodies?
Anabolic steroids are used in medicine to stimulate bone growth and appetite, induce male puberty. They also produce increases in muscle mass and physical strength. So it is banned by all major sporting bodies like WTA, ITF, International Olympic Committee, FIFA, UEFA, the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the European Athletic Association and the National Football League.

What is pharmacology of anabolic steroids?
These steroids promote anabolism. They are androgenic or virilizing. The biochemical functions of androgens such as testosterone are numerous. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality.

What are the adverse effects of anabolic steroids?
Most of its side effects are dose dependent. The most common are blood pressure with pre-existing hypertension, harmful changes in cholesterol levels. It increases the risk of cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease, enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, heart attacks, and sudden cardiac death.

Why is the test for steroids required?
First, using steroids without a prescription can cause serious, adverse health effects. Second, using steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs can give athletes an unfair advantage over their competition, and is cheating. Third, testing for steroids can help deter their use among high school students. Finally, steroids are drugs that should be used to treat medical conditions.

What are the medical uses of anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids have been used by physicians for many purposes like bone marrow stimulation, growth stimulation, stimulation of appetite and preservation and increase of muscle mass, induction of male puberty and hormone replacement therapy.

What is a steroid cycle?
A steroid cycle is a term commonly used to describe a period in time where an individual intakes anabolic steroids. The longer the body's endogenous supply of testosterone is suppressed, the harder it will be for their hypothalamus/pituitary/testicular axis (HPTA) to recover. More serious health risks are associated with longer cycles.

What is the window detection for steroid usage?
The duration the drugs last in someone's system vary greatly depending on the amount consumed, a person's metabolism, other physical characteristics, and whether or not someone chronically uses the drug. Lastly, there is no "set" amount of time that we screen for - it all depends on the individual.

What is a half-life?
A half-life is the time it takes for a half of the drug to be broken down by the body. It is not the detection period. From the half-life information, one can infer that amount of time a detectable amount of drug will be found in the waste streams. This does not include metabolites because there is no information on the metabolic processes as they are products of metabolism. Please see the charts for the half-life information.

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