What is a steroid?
A steroid is a terpenoid lipid characterized by a carbon
skeleton with four fused rings. All steroids are made in cells
either from the sterol lanosterol or the sterol cycloartenol.
Both sterols are derived from the cyclization of the
What are Anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids are a class of steroid hormones related to
the hormone testosterone. They increase protein synthesis
within cells, which results in the buildup of cellular tissue
(anabolism), especially in muscles. Anabolic steroids also
have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the
development and maintenance of masculine characteristics.
Why is the use of anabolic steroids banned by all major
Anabolic steroids are used in medicine to stimulate bone
growth and appetite, induce male puberty. They also produce
increases in muscle mass and physical strength. So it is
banned by all major sporting bodies like WTA, ITF,
International Olympic Committee, FIFA, UEFA, the National
Hockey League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball
Association, the European Athletic Association and the
National Football League.
What is pharmacology of anabolic steroids?
These steroids promote anabolism. They are androgenic or
virilizing. The biochemical functions of androgens such as
testosterone are numerous. Processes affected include pubertal
growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality.
What are the adverse effects of anabolic steroids?
Most of its side effects are dose dependent. The most common
are blood pressure with pre-existing hypertension, harmful
changes in cholesterol levels. It increases the risk of
cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease, enlargement
and thickening of the left ventricle, cardiac arrhythmias,
congestive heart failure, heart attacks, and sudden cardiac
Why is the test for steroids required?
First, using steroids without a prescription can cause
serious, adverse health effects. Second, using steroids and
other performance-enhancing drugs can give athletes an unfair
advantage over their competition, and is cheating. Third,
testing for steroids can help deter their use among high
school students. Finally, steroids are drugs that should be
used to treat medical conditions.
What are the medical uses of anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids have been used by physicians for many
purposes like bone marrow stimulation, growth stimulation,
stimulation of appetite and preservation and increase of
muscle mass, induction of male puberty and hormone replacement
What is a steroid cycle?
A steroid cycle is a term commonly used to describe a period
in time where an individual intakes anabolic steroids. The
longer the body's endogenous supply of testosterone is
suppressed, the harder it will be for their
hypothalamus/pituitary/testicular axis (HPTA) to recover. More
serious health risks are associated with longer cycles.
What is the window detection for steroid usage?
The duration the drugs last in someone's system vary greatly depending
on the amount consumed, a person's metabolism, other physical characteristics,
and whether or not someone chronically uses the drug. Lastly, there is no
"set" amount of time that we screen for - it all depends on the individual.
What is a half-life?
A half-life is the time it takes for a half of the drug to be broken
down by the body. It is not the detection period. From the half-life
information, one can infer that amount of time a detectable amount of
drug will be found in the waste streams. This does not include metabolites
because there is no information on the metabolic processes as they are products
of metabolism. Please see the charts for the half-life information.